Besides protons, what other particles make up an atom? Write 2 – 3 sentences identifying the attractive forces that act between a proton and each of these other particles.

In this test, you will apply what you have learned in the semester. Answer the questions below. Show all your work on the test and submit it to your teacher when you are done.

Question 1: Atoms (8 points)

a. Besides protons, what other particles make up an atom? Write 2 – 3 sentences identifying the attractive forces that act between a proton and each of these other particles. (4 points)

b. Using a periodic table, identify the element whose atoms have 11 protons. Is it a metal, a nonmetal, or a metalloid? Write 1 – 2 sentences describing how an atom of this element changes when it forms an ionic bond. (4 points)

Question 2: Fluids (6 points)

A robotic submersible is being brought back on board a ship. What happens to the buoyant force as the submersible is lifted out of the water? Write 2 – 3 sentences explaining your reasoning. (6 points)

Question 3: Heat (12 points)

a. If 0.45 kg of iron at 140°C is added to 1.5 kg of water at 22°C, what will be the final temperature of the system? (4 points)

b. By touching the side of a beaker, a student concludes that an exothermic change is taking place inside it. Write 2 – 3 sentences explaining how the student came to that conclusion and comparing the energy of the products of an exothermic reaction with the energy of the reactants. (4 points)

c. As a substance condenses, its temperature does not change. How does the potential energy of the molecules of the substance change as a result of the heat released? What type of energy must decrease in order for the temperature to decrease? (4 points)

Question 4: Light and Quantization (10 points)

a. Violet light has higher energy than yellow light. Write 3 – 4 sentences comparing these electromagnetic waves with respect to the following properties: wavelength, frequency, and speed. (4 points)

b. When a certain amount of violet light and yellow light shine on a metal surface, only violet light produces an electric current. Write 3 – 4 sentences describing how an increase in the intensity of each type of light will affect the amount of current produced. How does quantization help to explain these observations? (6 points)

Question 5: Electricity and Magnetism (18 points)

a. Draw the magnetic field lines between the two ends of the magnets. Write 2 – 3 sentences describing the direction of the magnetic force between the magnets and identifying the two electric point charges that have an electric field between them that resembles this magnetic field. (6 points)

b. Calculate the total resistance of the circuit below. (4 points)

c. In the circuit diagram above, meters 1 and 2 are connected as shown. Write 2 – 3 sentences identifying each type of meter and how it is connected with the 8 Ω resistor. (4 points)

d. In the circuit diagram above, predict which resistors will stop working (if any) when the switch is opened. Write 2 – 3 sentences explaining your reasoning. (4 points)

Question 6: Optics (18 points)

a. A light wave moves through glass (n = 1.5) at an angle of 15°. What angle will it have when it moves from the glass into air (n = 1)? (4 points)

b. Draw a ray diagram to locate the image of the arrow, as refracted through the lens shown. Write 2 – 3 sentences describing the type of image and its size relative to the object. What type of mirror could be used to form an image of the same type and size? (8 points)

c. An object is located 70 cm from a concave mirror with a focal length of 15 cm. What is the image distance? Is the image real or virtual? (6 points)

Question 7: Nuclear Changes (20 points)

a. Write the symbol for the nucleus that completes the following nuclear equation:

(3 points)

b. Write the symbol for the nucleus that completes the following nuclear equation:

(3 points)

c. If the half-life of iodine-131 is 8 days, how old is a sample if only ¼ of the original amount remains? Write 2 – 3 sentences explaining your reasoning. (6 points)

d. What type of nuclear reaction is shown in the diagram below? Write 2 – 3 sentences describing what happens in this reaction, where it happens, and how the energy released can be harnessed for use in homes. (8 points)

Question 8: Cosmology (8 points)

a. Write 3 – 4 sentences describing how the universe began and how its size is currently changing, according to the big bang theory. According to the flat model, what will eventually happen to the universe? (4 points)

b. What is cosmic background radiation? What conclusion do scientists draw about the universe, based on their observations of cosmic background radiation? Write 2 – 3 sentences to present your response. (4 points)


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