Describe the steps of the B-cell immune response leading to humoral immunity. Begin from an antigen entering the body.

31. In lecture, we discussed 5 ways that antibodies interact with antigens to inhibit to destroy them. Please list the 5 ways antibodies interact with antigens and describe how each way works to inhibit or destroy the antigen they bind to. (Suggested word count: 50-150 words or less).

32. This question has two parts. Each part should be 50-150 words.

Part A: (3pts)

First, describe the difference between disinfection and sterilization. Then answer: Is disinfecting something the same as sterilizing it? Why or why not? Take into account the techniques used in each and the level of microbial control achieved.
Part B: (2pts)
Is boiling water considered a method of disinfection or sterilization?

33. List and describe each of the 5 classes of immunoglobulins. Be sure to mention their biological functions. Also mention which immunoglobulins can be passed from mother to baby (either through the placenta and/or through breastfeeding). (50-200 words).

34. This question has two parts. Each part should be 100-200 words.
Part A: (5pts)
Describe the steps of the T-cell mediated immune response. Begin from an antigen entering the body. Be sure to mention and describe T-cell activation, T helper cells, MHC receptors, Cytotoxic T-cells and their roles in this immune response.

Part B: (5pts)

Describe the steps of the B-cell immune response leading to humoral immunity. Begin from an antigen entering the body.

Be sure to mention and describe B-cell activation, memory B cells, MHC receptors, plasma cells and their roles in this immune response.

36. Please explain how an mRNA vaccine works to elicit an immune response from our bodies that will lead to longer-lasting immunity. In your answer, be sure to mention: the components of the vaccine (how is the mRNA delivered to our cells?), how does the mRNA trigger an immune response from our immune cells and how do our immune cells respond to it. (Hint: Remember that the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are mRNA vaccines). (Suggested word count: 100-150 words).

37. This question has both a part A and a Part B. Be sure you address both parts.
Part A: A friend of yours refuses to get the flu shot because he says his aunt once got the flu the day after receiving the shot. He says this must mean his aunt got the flu from the flu shot. How would you explain to him that this is not possible? Please be sure to mention the components of the vaccine, possible side effects, and why people can still get the flu shortly after receiving the vaccine. (100-150 words or less)
Part B: Your friend is still not fully convinced. He suddenly says he remembers getting a flu shot once years ago when he was younger. He says this means he is still immune and doesn’t need to get another one. How would you explain to him that we need to get annual flu shots? (50-100 words or less).

39. Be sure to address each part of the question. (Suggested word count for each answer 25-50 words).
1. What are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)? Are they specific to a single type of cell?
2.Give an example of a PAMP.
3. How do our white blood cells recognize PAMPs and how do our white blood cells react to PAMPs?

42. Please explain why the anti-microbic, chloramphenicol can potentially be very toxic to human beings. Be sure to describe chloramphenicol’s mode of action in your answer. (Suggested word count: 50-75 words).

43. These question has a Part A and a Part B. Be sure you answer both parts. (Suggested word count for each answer: 50-75 words):
Part A: (2.5pts)
What is meant by prophylactic drug treatment and what are its purposes?
Part B: (2.5pts)
Why would someone be prescribed more than one type of antimicrobic at a time to treat an illness?

47. Describe how SARS-CoV-2’s specificity for the ACE2 receptors contributes to the harmful effects on the body, especially the lungs, seen in COVID-19. Be sure to mention ACE, ACE2, Ang I, Ang II, Ang 1-7 and how they all relate to each other. (100-150 words or less)

55. Why is cell-mediated immunity called cell-mediated immunity? Why is humoral immunity called humoral immunity? (Suggested word count: 25-50 words).

62. Consider the following sentence:
“Before the knee surgery, the patient’s leg was sterilized with alcohol”.
What is wrong with the meaning of this sentence? What would be the correct way to word this sentence? (Suggested word count: 25 words). is an online academic writing platform that provides essay and assignment solutions to students from all nations around the world. Based in the United States, assists students from over 100 countries with their assignments and essays.

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