PATHO 370 Midterm Study Guide

genetics, socioeconomic status, prior susceptibilities, pre-existing health status, allostatic state and ability to manage stress General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): Involves 3 STAGES: Alarm stage: stimulation of the SNS, resulting in release of catecholamines & cortisol Resistance stage: body selects the most effective and economic channels of defense; cortisol levels present in first stage drop b/c they are no longer needed Exhaustion stage: resources are depleted & signs of wear & tear or systemic damage appear Acute versus Chronic Stress: Acute stress: associated with the ANS, the fight or flight response; persons with preexisting heart disease can have complications with acute stress response that can lead to arrhythmias; in healthy individuals acute stress response can redirect attention from behaviors that promote health and interrupt compliance with medication regiments & exercise programs Chronic stress: it has been linked to health disorders including diseases of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, & neurological systems; sympathetic activity & cortisol are elevated Physiological stress & psychosocial stress: Physiological stress: stress-induced changes in body functions; detected by bodys normal regulatory sensors; the body alters function to restore normal balance; when normal balance is restored, negative feedback stops the reaction Psychosocial stress: Directly affects central nervous system; turns on the stress responses, even when the bodys internal sensors have not detected an imbalance Adaptation & Coping Mechanisms: Adaptation: the ability to respond to challenges of physical or psychological homeostasis & to return to a balanced state. Influenced by previous learning, physiologic reserve, time, genetic endowment, age, health status & nutrition, sleep-wake cycles, & psychosocial factors. Coping Mechanisms: Guided Imagery: scene visualization Music therapy: listening to music to ease anxiety or stress Massage therapy: manipulation of soft tissues to promote relaxation & relief of muscle tension Biofeedback: technique in which individual leans to control physiologic functioning Catecholamines Epinephrine: Released from the adrenal medulla. Increases heart rate, BP and cardiac output bronchodilation. Increases glycogenolysis and elevates blood glucose levels Supplementation and prolongation of fight or flight response, pupil dilation, dry mouth, increased blood coagulability. Norepinephrine: Released from postganglionic fibers. Constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure. Reduces gastric secretions. Increases night and far vision Adrenal Cortical hormones Cortisol: Primary glucocorticoid, found in adrenal cortex Alteration in glucose, fat, and protein metabolism; Suppression of inflammatory & immune responses Aldosterone: Primary mineralocorticoid reabsorption of sodium and water Increases blood pressure Chapter 4 Cell Injury, Aging, and Death Cellular response to Stress/Adaptation to stress: cells may adapt by undergoing changes in size, number, and type. These changes may lead to atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia and dysplasia. Cellular stresses also include intracellular accumulations & storage of products in abnormal amounts. Reversible Cell Injury: Hydropic swelling: water accumulation. Malfunction of Na-K pump with accumulation of Na+ within the cell. Any injury that results in loss of energy (ATP) will also result in swelling. Generalized swelling of cells in organs can lead to increase in size and weight; megaly Intracellular Accumulations: Excess accumulations of substances in cells. Leads to cellular injury due to: toxicity, immune response and taking up cellular space. Ex. Fatty liver Cellular changes [Show less]

Elite Writer Help
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.


Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.


Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.


Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.


Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.