changes to work within its environment. Exhaustion occurs when there is a negative sequela. Homeostasis is dynamic change. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 2. 2.ID: Which is not one of the recognized components of the general adaptation syndrome? A. Alarm B. Allostasis Correct C. Resistance D. Exhaustion Allostasis is a dynamic process that supports and helps the body achieve homeostasis. Alarm, resistance, and exhaustion are the three recognized components of Selyes General Adaptation Syndrome. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 3. 3.ID: What stage is defined by fight or flight? A. Alarm Correct B. Resistance C. Exhaustion D. Adaptation Alarm is called fight or flight because it gives the body a boost of energy to either run or confront. To survive, the body must move beyond the alarm stage to a stage of resistance (also called adaptation) supportive of the allostatic return to a state of homeostasis. Exhaustion occurs when the body is no longer able to bring about a return to homeostasis following prolonged exposure to noxious agents. To survive, the body must move beyond the alarm stage to a stage of resistance (also called adaptation) supportive of the allostatic return to a state of homeostasis. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 4. 4.ID: Which is true regarding catecholamines? A. They are from the parasympathetic nervous system. B. They include epinephrine and norepinephrine. Correct C. They cross the blood-brain barrier. D. They cause a decrease in heart rate. Catecholamines include epinephrine and norepinephrine. Norepinephrine is secreted from the sympathetic nerves, and epinephrine is secreted from the adrenal medulla. Epinephrine and norepinephrine cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. Epinephrine and norepinephrine cause increased heart rate, blood pressure, and blood flow to skeletal muscles. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 5. 5.ID: Which statement is true regarding epinephrine? A. It has the exact same effects as norepinephrine. B. It causes a decrease in glycogenolysis. C. It causes a decrease in muscle strength. D. It results in increased cardiac output. Correct Epinephrine increases heart rate, venous return, and cardiac output. Epinephrine produces some of the same effects as norepinephrine, but it has greater influence on cardiac action. Epinephrine increases glycogenolysis and the release of glucose from the liver. Epinephrine increases muscle strength, mental alertness, and vigilance. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 6. 6.ID: Which is a true statement regarding cortisol? A. It produces stress response effects similar to those of epinephrine. Correct B. Its activity is shorter than that of epinephrine. C. It has no known effect on the immune system. D. It is associated with the alarm stage. Cortisol does produce a stress response similar to that seen with epinephrine but with differs in length of duration. Cortisols affect is longer acting than that of epinephrine. Cortisols affects on the immune system has been documented. Epinephrine not cortisol is associated with the alarm stage. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 7. 7.ID: On which area does cortisol have an anabolic effect? A. Lymphoid B. Protein Correct C. Muscle D. Skin Cortisol has an anabolic effect on protein, leading to an increased rate of protein synthesis. Cortisol has a catabolic effect on lymphoid tissue Cortisol has a catabolic effect on muscle tissue. Cortisol has a catabolic effect on skin. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 8. 8.ID: Which hormone is responsible for lactation and interferes with ovulation? A. Growth hormone B. Testosterone C. Estrogen D. Prolactin Correct Prolactin is responsible for lactation and breast development while interfering with ovulation. Growth hormone affects protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Testosterone regulates male secondary sex characteristics and libido. Estrogen attenuates the HPA stress response. It also regulates female secondary sex characteristics. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 9. 9.ID: Which cardiovascular disorder has not been linked to excessive catecholamine levels in the blood? A. Stroke B. Hypertension C. Myocardial infarction D. Heart valve disfunction Correct There is no current research that associates heart valve dysfunctions with excessive catecholamine levels. Strokes have been associated with excessive catecholamine levels because of the affect of increased fat collects that can be released into the blood stream. Hypertension has long been associated with chronic stress and the resulting affect of catecholamine levels on the development of atherosclerosis. Catecholamines increase platelet activity resulting in clot formation and elevate serum lipid levels, significant factors in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 10. 10.ID: Which is a false statement? A. Epinephrine and cortisol act similarly. B. Cortisol and epinephrine work in synergy. C. Antidiuretic hormone is important for blood volume regulation. D. Endorphins decrease with stress, resulting in an increase in pain perception. Correct Endorphins increase with stress and lessen pain. Epinephrine and cortisol do produce similar effects. Cortisol and epinephrine actually do have a combined effect that is greater than the sum of their individual effects. Antidiuretic hormone is important for blood volume regulation, since it regulates fluids in the blood. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 1. .ID: Which condition occurs in the presence of cellular damage? A. Cells shrink. B. ATP production increases. C. Osmotic pressure decreases. D. Sodium and water move into the cell. Correct Cellular injury causes failure of the sodium-potassium pump, resulting in migration of sodium ions into the cell. The accumulation of intracellular sodium creates an osmotic gradient that pulls water into the cell, resulting in hydropic swelling. Cells actually swell, not shrink, as a result of cellular damage. Cellular damage results in the cells inability to perform normal metabolic functions owing to insufficient cellular energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Osmotic pressure increases to accommodate for swelling Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 2. 2.ID: An increase in which of these characteristics would be present in cells that demonstrate hypertrophy? A. Lipofuscin B. Size of vacuoles C. Size of cells Correct D. Number of cells Hypertrophy is defined as an increase in cell mass (cellular enlargement). A lipofuscin is a yellow to brown, granular, iron-negative lipid pigment found particularly in muscle, heart, liver, and nerve cells; it is the product of cellular wear and tear, accumulating in lysosomes with age. A vacuole is a small cavity in the cytoplasm of a cell, bound by a single membrane and containing water (hydropic swelling), food, or metabolic waste. Cells that are capable of mitotic division generally increase their functional capacity by increasing the number of cells by hyperplasia Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 3. 3.ID: Cellular hypoxia results in A. Increased pH B. Enhanced ATP activity C. Loss of intracellular calcium D. Failure of the sodium-potassium pump Correct Hypoxia is a loss of oxygen to the cell that causes ATP activity to cease. ATP provides the power required to drive the sodium-potassium pump. pH decreases in hypoxia (respiratory acidosis). Hypoxia is a loss of oxygen to the cell that causes ATP activity to cease. Deposits of calcium salts occur in conditions of altered calcium intake, excretion, or metabolism. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 4. 4.ID: Which cellular response is maladaptive? A. Shrinkage of cell size B. Increase in cell size C. Increase in the number of cells D. Change in the shape or arrangement of cells Correct Dysplasia (abnormal variations in shape and arrangement of cells) represents an unsuccessful attempt of the cells to adapt. Cells shrink in response to a migration of fluid to balance fluid loss elsewhere in the body. Cells hypertrophy (increase in size) in response to increased physiologic or pathophysiologic demands. Cells that are capable of mitotic division generally increase their functional capacity by increasing the number of cells (hyperplasia) as well as by hypertrophy. Hyperplasia usually results from increased physiologic demands or hormonal stimulation. Persistent cell injury also may lead to hyperplasia. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 5. 5.ID: A critical event in the death of a cell is caused by A. Disruption of the plasma membranes permeability barrier Correct B. An increase in cellular protein content C. An accumulation of lipofuscin D. Chronic nutrient insufficiency Disruption of the plasma membrane barrier, seen in necrosis, results in cellular death. Hypertrophy results primarily from a net increase in cellular protein content Atrophy can result in the accumulation of lipofuscin. Atrophy occurs when cells shrink and reduce their differentiated functions in response to a variety of normal and injurious factors, such as nutrient starvation. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 6. 6.ID: A client develops weakness in both lower extremities following a prolonged period of bed rest. This condition is most likely caused by A. Atrophy Correct B. Dysplasia C. Hypertrophy D. Hyperplasia Disuse atrophy develops after prolonged periods of inactivity as a result of shrinkage of skeletal muscle cells. Dysplasia results in the abnormal development or growth of tissues, organs, or cells. Hypertrophy is an increase in cell mass accompanied by an augmented functional capacity. Cells hypertrophy in response to increased physiologic or pathophysiologic demands. Hyperplasia increase the cells functional capacity by increasing the number of cells. Hyperplasia usually results from increased physiologic demands or hormonal stimulation. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 7. 7.ID: [Show less]
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