Patho 370 Review Questions Latest Update

Adaptive changes occur when a body function changes to work within its environment. Exhaustion occurs when there is a negative sequela. Homeostasis is dynamic change. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 2. 2.ID: Which is not one of the recognized components of the general adaptation syndrome? A. Alarm B. Allostasis Correct C. Resistance D. Exhaustion Allostasis is a dynamic process that supports and helps the body achieve homeostasis. Alarm, resistance, and exhaustion are the three recognized components of Selyes General Adaptation Syndrome. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 3. 3.ID: What stage is defined by fight or flight? A. Alarm Correct B. Resistance C. Exhaustion D. Adaptation Alarm is called fight or flight because it gives the body a boost of energy to either run or confront. To survive, the body must move beyond the alarm stage to a stage of resistance (also called adaptation) supportive of the allostatic return to a state of homeostasis. Exhaustion occurs when the body is no longer able to bring about a return to homeostasis following prolonged exposure to noxious agents. To survive, the body must move beyond the alarm stage to a stage of resistance (also called adaptation) supportive of the allostatic return to a state of homeostasis. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 4. 4.ID: Which is true regarding catecholamines? A. They are from the parasympathetic nervous system. B. They include epinephrine and norepinephrine. Correct C. They cross the blood-brain barrier. D. They cause a decrease in heart rate. Catecholamines include epinephrine and norepinephrine. Norepinephrine is secreted from the sympathetic nerves, and epinephrine is secreted from the adrenal medulla. Epinephrine and norepinephrine cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. Epinephrine and norepinephrine cause increased heart rate, blood pressure, and blood flow to skeletal muscles. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 5. 5.ID: Which statement is true regarding epinephrine? A. It has the exact same effects as norepinephrine. B. It causes a decrease in glycogenolysis. C. It causes a decrease in muscle strength. D. It results in increased cardiac output. Correct Epinephrine increases heart rate, venous return, and cardiac output. Epinephrine produces some of the same effects as norepinephrine, but it has greater influence on cardiac action. Epinephrine increases glycogenolysis and the release of glucose from the liver. Epinephrine increases muscle strength, mental alertness, and vigilance. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 6. 6.ID: Which is a true statement regarding cortisol? A. It produces stress response effects similar to those of epinephrine. Correct B. Its activity is shorter than that of epinephrine. C. It has no known effect on the immune system. D. It is associated with the alarm stage. Cortisol does produce a stress response similar to that seen with epinephrine but with differs in length of duration. Cortisols affect is longer acting than that of epinephrine. Cortisols affects on the immune system has been documented. Epinephrine not cortisol is associated with the alarm stage. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 7. 7.ID: On which area does cortisol have an anabolic effect? A. Lymphoid B. Protein Correct C. Muscle D. Skin Cortisol has an anabolic effect on protein, leading to an increased rate of protein synthesis. Cortisol has a catabolic effect on lymphoid tissue Cortisol has a catabolic effect on muscle tissue. Cortisol has a catabolic effect on skin. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 8. 8.ID: Which hormone is responsible for lactation and interferes with ovulation? A. Growth hormone B. Testosterone C. Estrogen D. Prolactin Correct Prolactin is responsible for lactation and breast development while interfering with ovulation. Growth hormone affects protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Testosterone regulates male secondary sex characteristics and libido. Estrogen attenuates the HPA stress response. It also regulates female secondary sex characteristics. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 9. 9.ID: Which cardiovascular disorder has not been linked to excessive catecholamine levels in the blood? A. Stroke B. Hypertension C. Myocardial infarction D. Heart valve disfunction Correct There is no current research that associates heart valve dysfunctions with excessive catecholamine levels. Strokes have been associated with excessive catecholamine levels because of the affect of increased fat collects that can be released into the blood stream. Hypertension has long been associated with chronic stress and the resulting affect of catecholamine levels on the development of atherosclerosis. Catecholamines increase platelet activity resulting in clot formation and elevate serum lipid levels, significant factors in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 10. 10.ID: Which is a false statement? A. Epinephrine and cortisol act similarly. B. Cortisol and epinephrine work in synergy. C. Antidiuretic hormone is important for blood volume regulation. D. Endorphins decrease with stress, resulting in an increase in pain perception. Correct Endorphins increase with stress and lessen pain. Epinephrine and cortisol do produce similar effects. Cortisol and epinephrine actually do have a combined effect that is greater than the sum of their individual effects. Antidiuretic hormone is important for blood volume regulation, since it regulates fluids in the blood. Awarded 0.0 points out of 1.0 possible points. 1. .ID: Which condition occurs in the presence of cellular damage? A. Cells shrink. B. ATP production increases. C. Osmotic pressure decreases. D. Sodium and water move into the cell. Correct Cellular injury causes failure of the sodium-potassium pump, resulting in migration of sodium ions into the cell. The accumulation of intracellular sodium creates an osmotic gradient that pulls water into the cell, resulting in hydropic swelling. Cells actually swell, not shrink, as a result of cellular damage. Cellular damage results in [Show less]

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