QUESTION 2 The influence of the National Rifle Association (NRA) has been demonstrated in repeated studies by political scholars. stems as much from an enhanced reputation for influence as actual infl

QUESTION 2The influence of the National Rifle Association (NRA)has been demonstrated in repeated studies by political scholars.stems as much from an enhanced reputation for influence as actual influence.was smaller in the 1990s but has increased since the George W. Bush administration.is based upon the effective lobbying of members of both parties.QUESTION 3What was notable about interest group spending in the 2016 election?PAC contributions were greater than independent expenditures for the first time.There was significant spending from outside groups in presidential andcongressional races.Democrat groups outspent Republican groups in Senate races.None of these answers are correct.QUESTION 4What worries does interest group involvement in campaigns raise?Candidates may feel beholden to interest groups that donate to them or advertiseon their behalf.Interest groups will spend money on television advertisements rather than onorganizing members.Citizens may perceive interest groups primarily as partisan organizations rather than as organizations focused on particular interests.Parties may think of interest groups as essentially adjuncts of the party rather than as independent entities.  QUESTION 5Interest groups spendmore money on campaigns than they do on lobbying.about the same amount of money on campaigns as they do on lobbying.more money on lobbying than on campaigning.more money on campaigns in presidential election years, but more money on lobbying in other years.QUESTION 6Interest groups are more likely to representconstituencies that are poor and have more to gain from government policy.constituencies that are wealthier and have more to gain from government policy.constituencies that are African American and have more to gain from government policy.None of these are correct.QUESTION 7One reason there are increasingly numerous interest groups in the United States today is thatthe public’s interests have changed over time.politicians prefer to delegate issues to interest groups.the country’s increasing diversity of ideas and backgrounds.recently there have been changes in the economy.QUESTION 8The Arab American Institute interest group aims to represent the political interest of all Arab Americans. The group undertakes activities to mobilize Arab Americans and engage them in the political process. We might describe this group as one that claims to speak forthis broader constituency.various ethnic or religious groups in the United States.the Democratic Party.the Republican Party.QUESTION 9In 2012, data from the Center for Responsive Politics shows that business groups account for ________ percent of large federal campaign contributions.1256095QUESTION 10Suppose your interest group is trying to decide when to spend money on a congressional campaign for a new candidate with little name recognition. When are interest group expenditures more likely to have an impact?during the early days of the primary election campaignlater in the campaign, after a competent campaign organization is builtbefore the announcement of the candidate’s candidacyNone of these are correct. QUESTION 11What characterized the behavior of the Koch brothers during the 2016 elections?They raised millions of dollars to support Trump.There were no ads attacking the Koch brothers.They spend more money on down ballot candidates.They shifted their support to Hillary Clinton.  QUESTION 12″Social context” refers to theconstraints on mobilization appeals created by societal expectations.mobilization and organizational practices the Barack Obama campaign borrowed from Social Democratic parties in Europe.people with whom an individual communicates and interacts.name psychologists give to people’s willingness to vote after being told that whether they show up to vote is a matter of public record.QUESTION 13Attendance at Trump’s rallies in the 2016 presidential election often required tickets, which did not guarantee admission if the venue became filled to capacity, yet many people waited in long lines hoping to get inside. These individuals are best described ashaving a high level of political interest.those with a lesser likelihood to vote than most.mobilized voters.a generational cohort.QUESTION 14The people who turn out in midterm elections are best described as ________ voters.periodicerratichabitualuninformedQUESTION 15Why were voter registration requirements created?Progressive era reformers sought to limit the power of urban political machines and the immigrant and working-poor voters who supported them.Southerners began implementing these laws after the Union army ended the military occupation of the South at the end of Reconstruction.Republicans implemented these laws in the 1940s and 1950s in an attempt to stop the Democrats’ New Deal Coalition.Conservative state legislatures implemented registration in an effort to reduce support for Barack Obama. QUESTION 16Compared to the turnout of whites, African American turnout ishigher.about the same.the same in presidential elections, but higher in midterm elections.lower.QUESTION 17The 2004 campaign for George W. Bush included volunteers holding “parties for the president.” Participants enjoyed being part of the collective effort and friendship with fellow volunteers. This is a form ofmaterial benefits.purposive benefits.solidarity benefits.None of these are correct.QUESTION 18Why do young people vote less often than older people?Young people are more mobile, which makes it harder for them to register to vote and harder for campaigns to find them to mobilize them.Young people are more likely to be independents, and independents are less likely to participate in politics.Young people have lower levels of education than older generations, and education is related to turnout.Young people are more likely to be African American than older generations, and African Americans have lower turnout rates than whites.QUESTION 19What is the relationship between an individual’s level of partisanship and political participation?Strong partisans are more likely to participate in politics because they are more invested in the success of their party.Independents are more likely to participate in politics because they spend more time and effort examining candidates.Democrats are more likely to participate because the Democratic Party runs on a more participatory model.Republicans are more likely to participate in politics because older people are more likely to participate in politics.QUESTION 20Why do different generational cohorts have different levels of participation?Different generational cohorts have differently inspiring political leaders to urgethem to vote.Political issues affect each age cohort differently, and some are more directly impacted by government policies.The norm of nonparticipation for women has faded since the rise of the feminist movement and now only affects older generations.There are distinctive patterns that come from norms of behavior and civil and political engagement that were pervasive when that generation came of age.QUESTION 21The intent of the Motor Voter Act was toboost voting rates among Republicans.boost voting rates among Democrats.increase registration costs.lower registration costs.QUESTION 23Use of the telegraph was instrumental in news reporting becauseit eliminated the journalist’s role as the intermediary in news reporting.it automated much of the work of reporters.it led to the creation of wire services, which allowed news media to share news and reproduce content quickly.All of these answers are correct.QUESTION 24After airing the 2016 election presidential debates, the news network CNN often aired a follow-up program in which reporters and pundits provided further analysis and interpretation of the debates. This is known ashorse race journalism.interpretive journalism.yellow journalism.All of these answers are correct.QUESTION 25What type of stories does network news coverage tend to favor?detailed policy stories that focus on the details of new legislationstill pictures and text, which helps them to be as credible as newspaperslong sound bites from presidential candidatesstories with good visuals but less depth than newspaper articlesQUESTION 26The media’s focus on conflict leads to more coverage ofcandidates’ policy proposals.positive advertisements than negative ones.negative advertisements than positive ones.candidate biography.QUESTION 27Where do most Americans get their news?televisionnewspapersradioonlineQUESTION 28Which of the following claims about news media bias is supported by political science evidence?Democratic candidates for Congress obtain substantially more positive coverage.Republican candidates with financial support from large corporations aretreated favorably.Newspapers favor incumbent candidates whom their editorial boards endorse.Television news coverage is more negative toward the frontrunner.QUESTION 29How do the values of the media affect the strategies of candidates?Because of the press’s liberal bias, Republican candidates must find ways to go around the press to communicate with voters.The value of novelty prompts campaigns to organize a continuous stream of new events to gain media attention.The value of national unity prompts campaigns to avoid attacking their opponent atpublic events.The value of objectivity prompts campaigns to try to conduct joint events withtheir opponents.QUESTION 30What is the most common effect of media coverage?persuasionindoctrinationreinforcementalienation

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