Reply to discussion post

Respond to colleagues’ posts and provide additional insight to your colleagues related to issues and topics they may want to also consider. Use the Learning Resources and/or the best available evidence from current literature to support your explanation.

Colleague post : Roles of a CRNP, a CNM, a PA, and an FNP
A Certified Registered Nurse Practitioner (CRNP) is an advanced nurse with a bachelor’s degree in nursing. CRNP is responsible for managing patients’ health. They diagnose diseases and injuries, prescribe medication, and educate patients (Norful et al., 2017). Through the CRNP, patients can meet their needs without visiting physicians because CRNP has the same skills and abilities as primary care doctors. Nevertheless, CRNP is not limited to primary care only; some certified registered nurse practitioners specialize in all medicine and medical settings. For example, they can prescribe medication to patients after diagnosis. They can work in family health, oncology, internal medicine, and pediatrics (Norful et al., 2017). They can also help in emergency rooms, surgeries, and critical care units. The role of CRNP, such as educating patients, impacts their practice as family nurse practitioners since they can carry the role of FNP by gathering information from patients to ascertain their health needs and problems through interviews and reviewing medical records of a patient (Andrews et al., 2021). Moreover, they can provide wellness guidance and necessary care to patients in need. Their role in diagnosing diseases can also impact their practice as FNP by establishing a definitive diagnosis that may require an additional test or information.  
On the other hand, a Certified Nurse-Midwife (CNM) is a trained medical professional who provides comprehensive healthcare services. They are responsible for monitoring fetal development; maternal health and help in treating health complications that may arise during pregnancy (Marzalik et al., 2018). They also teach women about birth options and help them in getting prepared and planning for their birth. CNM also assists mothers with breastfeeding, taking care of themselves during the breastfeeding period, and providing postpartum healthcare (Marzalik et al., 2018). Apart from their core duties, they are certified to perform other tasks such as writing a prescription and prescribing medication, and serving as primary care providers for women. The main role of a certified health care midwife is to provide care to all women of all ages. This role can impact their practice as family nurse practitioners since they can attend to women who require counseling on healthy lifestyles and diseases prevention due to pregnancy (Andrews et al., 2021). For instance, they can advise women on the types of food they should take to enhance healthy fetal growth. Besides, their role can impact their practice as FNP by helping in newborn care since FNP also provides care for patients ranging from infants to adults.
Conversely, a physician assistant (PA) is a licensed medical professional responsible for providing direct patient care. They provide care to all patients, including infants and the elderly in primary care. PAs are responsible for educating patients, especially on issues regarding healthcare management, such as family planning and emotional problems of daily life (Morgan et al., 2016). They also diagnose diseases and interpret diagnostic studies that are used to identify a pathophysiological process. PAs also perform therapeutic procedures and helps manage medical and surgical conditions, including conducting operations and taking the initiative to analyze responses to life-threatening situations (Morgan et al., 2016). For example, they can assist physicians in performing minor surgeries. Consequently, they provide patient management plan record concerning patients’ progress and offer continuity of care. Their role impacts their practice as family nurse practitioners since they can analyze the results of various assessments and devise potential diagnoses, which is a role of the FNP (Andrews et al., 2021). At the same time, through patients’ education, PAs can gather information from patients and determine their health needs and problems. This role can impact their practice as FNPs because they can conduct an interview with patients and family members and interpret diagnostic tests and procedures.
Andrews, C. S., Steller, J. V., & Friedman, A. K. (2021). Development of collaborative family nurse practitioner education using physician preceptors: A focused critical ethnographic study. Nurse Education Today, 107, 105110.
Marzalik, P. R., Feltham, K. J., Jefferson, K., & Pekin, K. (2018). Midwifery education in the US-Certified Nurse-Midwife, Certified Midwife and Certified Professional Midwife. Midwifery, 60, 9-12.
Morgan, P., Everett, C. M., Humeniuk, K. M., & Valentin, V. L. (2016). Physician assistant specialty choice: distribution, salaries, and comparison with physicians. Journal of the American Academy of PAs, 29(7), 46-52.
Norful, A., Martsolf, G., de Jacq, K., & Poghosyan, L. (2017). Utilization of registered nurses in primary care teams: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 74, 15-23.
Topic: The term ‘history” is broad in meaning. Within that broad framework archeologists tend to focus their careers on various specialties and areas of interest, such as specific historical eras or geographical areas.So it is with nurses. Within the broad framework of healthcare, nurse practitioners focus their careers on various roles. These roles may in part be based on narrower areas of interest such as women’s health. Careers also focus on selected technical nursing specialties.

For this Discussion, you will explore your professional interests and those interests are addressed in specific guidelines and competencies. You also examine the different nurse practitioner roles related to women’s health and how these roles might impact the way you work.
To prepare:

Review the modular structure of this course and reflect on how each module defines the specific skills needed as an advanced Nurse Practitioner (NP). 

Review the ANA guidelines, NP competencies, and the Ethic resources found in this week’s Learning Resources and consider how they impact the work of the NP.

Post a brief explanation about the differences in roles related to a CRNP, a CNM, and a PA and how each of these roles might impact the how you practice as a FNP. Be specific and provide examples.
Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.
Resources: Schuiling, K. D., & Likis, F. E. (2022). Gynecologic health care (4th ed.). Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Chapter 1, “A Feminist Perspective of Women’s Health” (pp. 3–10)

Chapter 3,” Women’s Growth and Development Across the Life Spans) pp. 39–49)

Chapter 4, “Using Evidence to Support Clinical Practice” (pp. 55–69)

Chapter 5, “Health Promotion” (pp. 75–86)

Chapter 7, “Gynecologic History and Physical Examination” (pp. 99–124) 

Chapter 11, “Gynecologic Health Care for Lesbian, Bisexual, Queer Women, and Transgender and Nonbinary Individuals” (pp. 173–210)

Guideline Resources
American Nurses Association (ANA). (n.d.). Scope of practice.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2020). Well-woman visit (Number 755) [Committee Opinion].
American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP). (2014). Algorithms: Updated consensus guidelines for managing abnormal cervical cancer screening tests and cancer precursors.
Competency Resources 
The National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (NONPF). (2017). Nurse Practitioner Core Competencies Content.
American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA) (2013). Competencies for the Physician Assistant Profession.
Ethics Resources
American Nurses Association (ANA). (n.d.). View the code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements.
Keuroghlian, A. S., Ard, K. L., & Makadon, H. J. (2017). Advancing health equity for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people through sexual health education and LGBT-affirming health care environments. Sexual Health, 14, 119–122.
Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I., Hoy-Ellis, C. P., Goldsen, J., Emlet, C. A., & R, N., Hooyman. (2014). Creating a vision for the future: Key competencies and strategies for culturally competent practice with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults in the health and human services. Journal of Gerontologic Social Work, 57(0), 80–107.
Screening Tools and/or Apps
As you download and consider using the following screening tools and/or apps on your mobile device, be mindful that if should you have any technical difficulties, please access technology support from the tool or app you are needing help with.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2018). Information for health professionals.
Ewing, J. (2004). Cage questionnaire.
American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP). (2020). New guidelines. New App.  
Note: This app will become available in 2020 and may require a fee for purchase. Please be mindful that you are not required to purchase the app for this course. However, it may be an app that will be useful for your professional practice.
Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital (n.d.). Women’s Health Study.

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