-Introduction (first few pages no more than 6)
Write the research topic in question form let thereader know what you are researching and why
Parental support (in terms of motivation, encouragement,and praise) (define it and explain how it impacts/influence life choicesthat people make-NOT RELATING TO SPORT GENERALIZE IT) Also include the typeof parenting styles authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, overbearing, anduninvolved. Briefly explain how they impact the lives of their children
Motivation – (define it and explain how it impacts/influencelife choices that people make-NOT RELATING TO SPORT GENERALIZE IT)
Encouragement (define it and explain how it impacts/influencelife choices that people make-NOT RELATING TO SPORT GENERALIZE IT)
Praise (define it and explain how it impacts/influencelife choices that people make-NOT RELATING TO SPORT GENERALIZE IT)
Social Support (define it and explain how it impacts/influencelife choices that people make-NOT RELATING TO SPORT GENERALIZE IT)
-Hypothesize an outcome and transition into the body ofthe text
-Body of the paper (research/support to find thefollowing information) please include some data along with citations
How does parental and social support (motivation-encouragement-praise)effect sport participation and performance?
Difference in positive and negative influences
Attitudes towards playing sport as a result of parenting styleand support
Are parents more influential than friends or vice versus
Are individuals more likely to continue or drop out of sportbased on parental influence
Where do we go from here (additional research that could bedone)
The introduction needs to include the definition of the independent variable(s) and how an individual’s behavior and performance in general is impacted. The introduction should be no longer than 6 pages. The rest of the paper should include how the independent variable(s) effects sports performance.
An integrative research review, a scholarly paper, not an opinion paper.
A comprehensive and up-to-date review of research on the chosen topic.
An analytical review of research and findings, not a listing review in which you take,say,15 studies and review (list) one study after another.
Dont necessarily limit yourself to studies done on sports performance. Remember that all the psychological constructs that are used to explain athletic performance are general psychology constructs, which are theoretically based in general psychology. Thus, it is not only appropriate but desirable that the relevant psychological theories are discussed as well. For example, it would impossible to write a paper on self-efficacy and athletic performance without discussing and reviewing Banduras theory of self-efficacy.
The review is based on both theoretical and empirical evidence.
In the review, the idea is to review, discuss and integrate findings and constructs, not methodological details. But if you find that a given study was done poorly from the methodological standpoint, it is perfectly fine to be critical of such studies.
Conclusions must reflect what was reviewed previously in the paper, not just throwing in some vague and general statements.
While it is ok to use direct quotes, which must be indicated by specific page numbers, it is not ok to build the paper on direct quotes. Two years ago, one student wrote the entire paper on the basis of direct quotes; I estimated that 85-90% of the text was direct quotes! She got D-.
You can be creative. For example, you can propose your own theoretical model at the end as a logical extension of the reviewed research. You should also have a section, where do we go from here?, in which you discuss future directions for research.
If you have contradictory findings from various studies, dont just present them without trying to reconcile the differences. Dont just leave them up in the air, so to speak.
Dont make claims without logical (theoretical) and/or empirical evidence.
Do not preach. While it is ok to discuss practical implications of your findings accruing from the review, it is not ok to start preaching the glory of athletic performance and related factors. Scholarly papers dont preach.
The paper has to deal with athletic performance, not physiological or biological or sociological aspects of physical activity and exercise. A paper on youth sports is not appropriate. Conceptually, athletic/sport performance is either an independent or dependent variable in the research review.
While you may use a case study to illustrate your point, such studies or examples should be kept to the minimum as you can not draw any conclusions from specific cases, only to illustrate a point to be made.
Make sure that you indicate somewhere in a logical place in your introduction what research question you intend to answer by this review. A clear purpose of the paper has to be indicated.
In terms of English: No typos or grammar errors or incomprehensible/awkward sentences are allowed.
In terms of English: organization is a big part of good writing. Thus, the text should be broken into sections by subheadings. Every paper must have Introduction and Summary/Conclusions. Other subheadings are determined separately by the content of each paper. The APA style uses 3-4 different types of headings; some are centered, others pulled to the side and underlined. Make sure you follow the APA style in this regard.
APA style to be used in all areas of the paper. So, for example, referencing in the text and at the end in the list of References has to follow the APA stylewith a correct way of indicating volumes and page numbers for journal articles. Every reference included in the text has to be found in References.
No web sources are acceptable. Use only scholarly sources, that is, mainly journal articles and chapters in the books, but no introductory texts. Dont limit yourself to just sport journals. Psychology journals are appropriate and desirable. The main psychology journals in our field: Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology; Journal of Exercise and Sport Psychology; Journal of Applied Sport Psychology; The Sport Psychologist; International Journal of Sport Psychology; Psychology of Exercise and Sport. In addition, the following journals report some psychology-related articles: Journal of Sport Behavior; Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport.
**Ideas that I formulated as it relates to parental support (various parenting styles – positive enforcement vs negative enforcement)- how it impacts an individual’s motivation, encouragement, confidence, behavior choices – the psychological factors that impacts athletic sport performance.
Formulate the research topic into a question and include a hypothesis. – it could be a compound question eg. are individuals more likely to play professional sports (different levels). drop out of sports altogether (due to parental pressure/too involved), enjoy sports more and advance with support
NO YOUTH SPORTS!!! Do not focus on youth sports please…generalize around athletes all of ages
I have to double check the references…more is always ok.
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